Not every recipe calls for a turn or a fold halfway through its initial fermentation but some do. Think of it as a better way to punch down dough, because it does not destroy all of the precious air pockets within the dough. There are a couple of methods that I use the first is the turn. To turn the dough you simply scoop the dough up with lightly floured hands and let it droop down, folding over itself. This gently deflates the dough down while still maintaining many of the air pockets that have already formed. The second method is the fold method. To do this you gently scoop your dough out onto a lightly floured work surface and then with your fingertips you press lightly into the dough to make it into a small rectangle. With the short side facing you fold the bottom third to the center and the then the top third down over the bottom. The folding or turning action helps to revitalize the yeast and encourages the development of new cells for holding air. It also gives one final attempt at developing the gluten in the bread, but in a very gentle way.